This article explains passive form in Japanese. Passive form is also called “passive voice” in English.

Passive form means that something is being acted upon. An example in English would be “to give a gift” (active) versus “to be given a gift” (passive).

Examples:

トラコはねずみを食べました。
Torako wa nezumi o tabemashita.
Torako ate the mouse.

ねずみはトラコに食べられました。
Nezumi wa Torako ni taberaremashita.
The mouse was eaten by Torako.

ねずみはトラコに食べられませんでした。
Nezumi wa Torako ni taberaremasen deshita.
The mouse was not eaten by Torako.

トラコはねずみをおいかけました。
Torako wa nezumi o oikakemashita.
Torako chased the mouse.

ねずみトラコにおいかけられました。
Nezumi wa torako ni oikakeraremashita.
The mouse is chased by Torako.

Verb Conjugation Patterns

Use the following patterns to create passive form of verbs.

Verb Group 1 (godan verbs, also known as u-dropping verbs)

Positive Plain
[verb-stem]areru
Negative plain:
[verb-stem]arenai
Positive polite:
[verb-stem]aremasu
Negative polite:
[verb-stem]aremasen

Verb Group 2 (ichidan verbs, also known as ru-dropping verbs)

Positive Plain
[verb-stem]rareru
Negative plain:
[verb-stem]rarenai
Positive polite:
[verb-stem]raremasu
Negative polite:
[verb-stem]raremasen

Verb Group 3

Positive Plain
Suru: sareru
Kuru: korareru
Negative plain:
Suru: sarenai
Kuru: korarenai
Positive polite:
Suru: saremasu
Kuru: koraremasu
Negative polite:
Suru: saremasen
Kuru: koreraremasen

 


This page is based a part of “Some Notes on Japanese Grammar” published for your personal use, with the kind permission of Keith Smillie (http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~smillie/)